Debriefing is the act of facilitated reflection.  Innovators have worked hard at structuring debriefing to achieve the most transfer of knowledge and insight to the learners.  The goal of debriefing is to reach the learner's frame of reference and explore with curiosity why they perform the way they do.  Below are some landmark articles addressing debriefing in simulation as well as how to optimize those skills.  We will practice with debriefings of debriefings through exercise in the classroom.


1.     Dreifuerst, KT, (2009) The Essentials of Debriefing in Simulation Learning: A Concept Analysis, Nursing Education Perspectives. Vol. 30(2): 109-114. [CHSE]

2.     Rudolph et al., (2007), Debriefing with Good Judgement: Combining Rigorous Feedback with Genuine Inquiry, Anesthesiology Clinic, 25:361-376.

3.     Fanning, RM, Gaba, DM, (2007) The Role of Debriefing in Simulation-Based Learning., Simulation in Healthcare, Vol 2(2):115-125. [CHSE]

Additional Suggested Readings/Movies (Required for Sim/Ed Fellowship):

1.     Monica van de Ridder, JM et al., (2008) What is feedback in clinical education, Medical Education. 42:189-197. [CHSE]

2.     Heukelom, JNV et al. (2010), Comparison of Postsimulation Debriefing versus In-Simulation Debriefing in Medical Simulation, Simulation in Healthcare, 5(2):91-97. [CHSE]

3.     Breet-Fleegler, M et al. (2012), Debriefing Assessment for Simulation in Healthcare: Development and Psychometric Properties. Simul in Healthcare. 7(5):288-294.